Obviously, the Finns began to use the sauna for about two thousand
years ago. Although most old documents date back to about a thousand
Earthen sauna in Karelia, the beginning of 20 century (Samuli Paulaharyu)
The most ancient saunas represented zemljanke, dug on the slope of the
hill. Zemljanke used mainly as a shelter during the winter. Inside was
a hotbed of the premises with stones. The stones are heated at high
temperatures up to the flames, then for them to get podbrasyvalas water
vapour. This allowed to raise the temperature inside zemljanke to such
a level that people can stay in it without clothes.
"sauna" is an ancient Finnish word, which etymology is not clear, but
initially it could mean a winter home of this type.
earliest types of earthen sauna used mainly as housing, and only
secondarily for washing. Such buildings used as under the sauna, and
under the shelter existed in Finland even in the 19 century. But these
were exceptional cases, or was caused by poverty, or the temporary
nature of the use of such buildings. In general, except for ancient
times, sauna always located separately from the shelter. Such
descriptions of ancient documents found in saunas, starting with the 12
The modern sauna earthen
most modern type of earthen sauna has gingerbread roof and hinged
doors, the entire facade can be made of logs. This type of sauna is
used in our day, and some believe sauna lovers earthen sauna is so good
that even build new ones.
Sauna "on the black"
The standard type of saunas, remaining unchanged over the centuries, is
a rectangular wooden building, which had only one room. Inside this
room were open oven with stones and shelves.
This sauna "on-black" (savusauna) still considered by many Finns to anything not comparable.
The furnace original saunas, topyascheysya "on-black"
When the stones in a furnace Cup, smoke from burning firewood,
circulating on the premises, issued through the ventilation hole in the
ceiling or through the door priotkrytuyu saunas. Smoke from the
premises covered soot, attached sauna pleasant aroma. Then the floor
and shelves soap before visiting a sauna. Note that soot - is not dirt,
a form of charcoal, which has antibacterial properties.
Modern furnaces and sauna baths topyascheysya "on-black", with brick facings
Sauna with chimneys
Until the early 20 century, the only type of sauna sauna was
"on-black". Despite the wonderful aroma and a soft pairs, and a sauna
has its drawbacks: its warming takes a long time, constant cleaning
regiments saunas and sex of soot is painstaking work and, in addition,
sauna "on the black", could easily fire during her rastaplivaniya .
Approximately one hundred years ago, a traditional bathhouse furnace
replaced beginning with its other type. The new furnace stones were
closed conical metal casing, including a pipe connected to the
disqualification of smoke. The upper part of the enclosure had the
door. In opening or closing it could regulate the temperature in the
sauna, as well as podbrasyvat water on stones.
If sauna "on the black" must melt during the 3-4 hours and then give it
yet "to settle" an hour or two before you can start washing, a sauna
bathhouse ovens with the new demands only a couple of hours to heat,
and it can be used immediately same after the fire in the furnace
completely off. At this point, rose metal stove pipe valves to stop the
outflow of air outwards.
This new type of
furnace has spread rapidly, and in 1950 - years of nearly half of all
Finnish saunas were a new type of saunas. In eastern and northern parts
of the country sauna "on the black", lasted longer. In many places this
type of sauna was left at the same place, but close to the sauna built
a new furnace with a chimney. Since the latest operation was carried
out much easier, the use of saunas "on the black", virtually ceased.
Left unclaimed, they vetshali and then torn down.
factor that influenced the spread bathhouse ovens with chimneys, was
industrialization and urbanization country. In rural areas, every house
had a sauna, and the city people have public saunas. Ovens in these
saunas, because of reasons known to have chimneys, and people are
accustomed to this type of sauna.
In 1920 - e and in 1930 - s
family, relating to higher and middle class citizens, have to build
summer cottages in the countryside, usually by the lake or the sea and,
as is inherent in any Finnish settlers, the first thing started to
construct a sauna . Virtually all of these were new types of saunas,
and usually they pristraivalos additional space for living at a time
yet to build a more solid cottage house.
Permanent heating furnace
In a sauna "on the black", and in a sauna with chimneys, flames of fire
directly covered stones, heating them. Accordingly, wash in a sauna can
begin only after the fire in the furnace completely off.
1930 - ies was also invented another type bathhouse ovens with
chimneys. Principal Unlike previous type furnace, was that there were
flames isolated from the stones, which were in metal casings on the
flames. Between the stones were metal elements that were used to ensure
better transfer heat most stones. During the use of sauna fire could
burn continuously in the furnace. The intensity of fire as regulate the
temperature in the furnace stones, and the air temperature in a room
saunas. With such kind of ovens, washing in the sauna, could already
start in about half an hour after hot sauna started. On the other hand,
the fire in the furnace should have been continuously maintained, which
could represent known inconvenience. Moreover, in the opinion of many,
the quality of steam was incomparably steam in the sauna with direct
heating, not to mention a couple in the sauna "on the black".
Nevertheless, the practicality of this kind bathhouse ovens in Finland
has made it the most popular of all stoves, firewood topyaschihsya.
Left: The electric oven; Right: continuous heating furnace (for firewood)
The electric furnace baths.
The electric furnace bathhouse is the most significant innovation in
the history of Finnish saunas. It works, in principle, as well as for
wood stove with a permanent heating, except the point that instead of
open flame to heat the stones used electric heating elements. The ease
and safety of using such a furnace has made it the most common type
bathhouse ovens in Finland. In many places, such as in hotels or in
multistory buildings in urban areas, burning of firewood in a sauna can
not read and speeches, and on the electric stove bathhouse is the only
An integral element of any bathhouse ovens
are stones, which podbrasyvaetsya water. The more stones in a furnace,
respectively, the more energy should be spent for their heating, but
the more and pleasure derived from the pair. Some electric furnace bath
mostly not Finnish production have little stones and definitely does
not deserve to be as something associated with a Finnish sauna. In the
best electric furnaces there is a sufficient number of stones to
podbrasyvaemaya on them has been in contact with water from electric
elements that otherwise would be to attach a couple of bad odour. Some
stoves can be used in such a way that, after heated stones electricity
disconnected from the furnace at the time in the sauna bathing.
In general, electric ovens not considered as "good", as in wood stoves.
They, of course, are the most far from the original saunas, but the
truth and what good baths, electric oven is better than not very good
with the furnace firebox on firewood.
Other bathhouse ovens.
In bathhouse ovens can be used virtually any type of energy. There are,
for example, furnaces, using gas and oil products, but in Finland they
are rare. Gas and oil products can provide particularly unpleasant
smell, alien atmosphere saunas.
The history of the bathhouse buildings.
Old saunas, topyaschiesya "on the black", had only one room with a
stove and shelves. Water used in them economically, and purifies the
body through sweating and use bath brooms. Soap did not exist until the
19 century. People, detergents in the sauna, opolaskivalis and fresh in
the lake or river, or poured water, and in winter "bathed" in the snow.
If you enjoyed the sauna hot water, then heats it in wooden vats,
descending into it hot stones.
The entrance to the sauna,
lightly cover the nakedness, leaving clothes outside. After saunas put
clean clothes, but because saunas are usually quite easy to go out
dressed to be cool. Warmth clothes put themselves at a later date if
As the hygiene and with the advent of soap,
washing the body was in the sauna be more important than it was before.
The capacity for hot water became a permanent feature in the sauna. She
built or as a supplement to the bathhouse ovens, or existed as a
separate heated vats, and washing took place inside a sauna. In summer
it had no special significance, but in winter wash away saunas, on a
cold, it was impossible.
In urban public baths steam bath was
separated from swabbing, and with the proliferation saunas with
chimneys, this type of device bath rooms became gradually penetrate
into the sector and private saunas. In the end, wash in a more pleasant
cool room than in the sauna.
Decoration bathhouse facilities
developed in other aspects. Since 1920 - ies, in many saunas appear
hall and dressing separately located. In cases where the sauna served
as a testimony to it if there was no other buildings for accommodation,
pristraivalis other premises, such as kitchen and bedroom.
The walls and ceiling in any Finnish sauna has always made of wood,
whether log, board or wood stove. And in the old saunas, topyaschihsya
"on-black", sex is often served as bare ground, sometimes, perhaps,
bear the beams bars, which pairs go in the sauna. The next stage - a
floor of boards and eventually the floor, executed in concrete tiles.
The modern sauna built in the light of experience, they are reliable and fire.
Historical roots bathhouse
History bathhouse their deep rooted in antiquity. Thus, the Egyptians
already about 6 thousand years ago had attached great importance to the
purity of body and universally enjoyed baths. Egyptian priests during
the day washed four times: twice by day and twice at night. As
everywhere, there were perfectly organized by the bathhouse, accessible
to everyone. Adherence to the sauna and massage, eat in moderation
allow Egyptians to maintain consistency figures and helped successfully
fight premature old age. Egyptian doctors at that time considered the
best in the world, and their skill in treating various diseases hardly
do without water procedures, that is, without a bath.
Over 1.5 thousand years before Christ was widely used bath with hygienic and medicinal purposes in India.
In ancient Greece bathhouse emerged from the first Spartans. They
Represent a circular room with a stone open fireplace in the center.
A special love and popularity enjoyed the sauna at the ancient Romans.
Here there is literally a cult bathhouse. Even when health meeting, the
Romans greetings instead asked: "How poteesh?" The Romans simply did
not have imagined life without baths. "Banya, love and joy to old
age-we, together", - such an inscription preserved until our days on
the wall of one of ancient buildings.
In Romans not only bath
soap, but were interviewed, painted, read poems, sang, arranged feast.
When saunas were rooms for massage, the place for physical exercises
and sports, library. Rich Romans visited bath twice a day.
private and public Roman baths (terms) differed exclusive luxury -
precious marble basin, gold and silver basins. By the end I in. Mr
before. e. Rome was built in 150 public baths.
premises for sweating warming, just as in modern Russian sauna and
Finnish saunas: stove in the corner of braziers on the bronze
lattice-hot stones over the coals. There were also rooms with dry and
In ancient Rome baths and valued as a means of
many diseases. In particular, a prominent Roman physician Asklepiada
(128-56 years before he, e.) For his commitment to hydrotherapy baths
even nicknamed "kupalschikom". Asklepiad believed that to cure the
patient required purity of body, moderate gymnastics, sweating in the
sauna, massage, diet and walks in the fresh air. "Most importantly,
Asklepiad-claimed - to take possession of patient care, to destroy his
handru, submission and restore healthy optimistic attitude to life". It
is just a bath and created such feelings in a patient.
bath in Russia (soap, movnya, mov, vlaznya) was already known to the
Slavs in the V-VI centuries. Baney enjoyed by all: and princes, and a
noble people, and simple people. In addition to its purely functional
purposes, Bath played a big role in the different rites. For example,
the bath was considered necessary before the wedding, and on another
day of the wedding, the sauna was accompanied by a special
About Russian sauna wrote many foreign travelers.
Olearius (1603-1671 German scientist's.) Commits trip to Moskoviyu and
Persia in 1633-1639 he worked., Wrote that the Russian firm hold custom
wash in a bath ... but because something in all towns and villages they
have many public and private baths. Olearius, incidentally, mentions
that the Russian came to the conclusion that Lzhedmitry -
chuzhestranets because he did not like baths. "Russian - announced
Olearii - can make a strong fever, from which they are all red and
iznemogut before, that are no longer able to stay in the sauna, they
vybegayut naked into the street, both men and women, and poured cold
water , In winter, the left - bathhouse at the yard, valyayutsya in the
snow, his body trut that soap, and then again go to the sauna ".
Authorizing the construction of bathhouses, who had enough land.
Ordinance in 1649 prescribe "soap to build gardens on the field and the
ground was not close to the choir". Private hot baths only once a week,
on Saturdays, so they considered Saturday bathhouse days and has not
worked even prisutstvennye seats. Ordinary soap at home saunas entire
families while pairs of men and women together. Still, and in public (
"trade") baths people of all age and sex as couples and soap together,
however, women on one side, men - to another. And only in the senate in
1743 a decree was banned in. "Trade" saunas wash men together with
women and the male over the age of 7 years to enter the women's sauna,
a female of the same age - in menswear.
As one ancient
treatise, ten advantages to a omovenie: clarity of mind, freshness,
vivacity, health, strength, beauty, youth, purity, colour and pleasant
attention beautiful women. Note that someone who understands
interpreted in the steam bath, sauna goes to not so much to washing
facilities, how many boating and propotet.
to a beneficial change in a functional state organs and systems,
enhance metabolism, promotes the development of protective and
compensatory mechanisms. The reason is favorable influence of heat and
sweating on the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine system and
thermostatically controlled the majority of people. Bath calms the
nervous system, restores vivacity, improves mental capacity.